"Publication - is the Auction Of the Mind of Man" Emily Dickinson
Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Popular consciousness creates popular myths. Here are some myths about cloud computing.

1. Total reliance on the cloud is foolish or scary.

So is total reliance on the Internet or the electric grid, or the transportation network to get us our food. In fact, I imagine someone in 4000 BCE said: dwelling in cities is dangerous, and we should not let people farm to support them. Come to think of it, people are still saying it.

Dependency is a fact of life. It has been a fact of human existence since the first division of labor. Nonetheless, we should have contingency plans. Any organization that hosts any application should understand what the impact of an outage would be. It might be the cloud application itself is down, or the Internet connectivity is slow. Your contingency plan does depend on the nature of your application. After all, hospitals still have emergency generators for surgery, and we store a couple of day’s food in the refrigerator.

On the other hand, maybe you did build your own house, or sew your own clothing. Perhaps a day without email or applications (i.e. the Sabbath) might be a good idea after all.

Dependency, by itself is not an argument against Cloud Computing. It is the consequences of that dependency that matter. For most applications, even some of those considered the most critical; we could actual do without for a few hours.

2. Security is better/worse in the cloud

Data in the cloud is insecure. Data in the cloud is more secure. Nothing is quite like security for generating fear and myths.

The first question you always have to ask is: secure compared to what? Fort Knox? Money in your mattress? After all, the most secure computer is disconnected from the Internet. If you are really paranoid you can turn it off. Of course, it is now difficult to get any work done.

Is data in the cloud more or less secure? Is it secure compared to a corporate data center? There certainly have been some well publicized incidents of corporate data breaches. There are probably even more cases that have not been reported. Have there been any incidents in a cloud computing center? None yet, but there will be. If there are, they might be the fault of the application designers or owners. The same people who create insecure applications in their own data centers can certainly create them in the cloud. Cloud computing centers might be able to better focus on security (physical, data, and application) because that is part of their expertise.

On the other hand, with all that computation and storage focused in one place, people fear that cloud computing data centers may be an inviting target for attack. Employees of cloud computing centers may snoop. So can employees of a corporate data center. Will industrial espionage be easier in a cloud computing center? I am just waiting for the movie. Perhaps you are safer with people who specialize in keeping data centers secure, than a lot of smaller data centers. Bank robberies are not as frequent as they used to be.

Cloud computing centers may lack compliance certification, and that is a problem. On the other hand, as Berkeley researchers have argued, cloud computing may make Denial of Service attacks economically unfeasible.

It is also currently unknown if security breaches in one virtual machine can cause a compromise of the underlying physical hardware.

As with any hosted application, the builders of the application share responsibility with the cloud providers. You might want to investigate how well capitalized, and what the security plans of your provider are.

The best security is to park your bicycle next to a better bicycle with a worse lock.

3. Cloud is reliable / unreliable

My electric utility only gets 99.98% uptime. So much for the vaunted four nines. How much uptime does Facebook really need? You need to understand exactly what your application requirements are, and the consequences of failure.

I do not know of a single cloud computing vendor that offers a service level agreement with real remediation in case of an outage. Don’t forget that as with any hosted application you are still subject to the vagaries of the external network connections. The data center may be fine, but when Michael Jackson died, the response time of the Internet slowed to a crawl: nothing like a self-inflicted denial of service attack.

Given the current fetish over net neutrality, the packets carrying the output of your pacemaker to your cardiologist get the same priority as someone streaming Lady Gaga’s latest hit.

First define the reliability requirements that your application needs, then decide the appropriate course of action.

4. Cloud computing requires no social infrastructure

Suppose your cloud computer provider goes bankrupt, and the machines are seized as collateral for the debt. What happens to your applications and data? We may need an FDIC-like organization to handle cloud computing provider insolvencies. Some regulation would need to be in place to handle continuity of service during takeovers.

The economies of scale may lead us down the same road that the electrical utilities and the water companies went. The small scale providers were eventually taken over by the larger providers and the resulting monopolies were regulated.

Companies, such as financial services, that operate in heavily regulated industries will be reluctant to use cloud computing providers unless there is some clarity to their legal responsibility for data in the cloud. On the other hand, Microsoft is selling its cloud computing fabric so that third parties might set up private clouds for various industries. Whether they are true computing clouds or just hosting services with flexible virtualization would depend on the actual scaling potential of the data center.

9/28/2010 10:11:31 AM (Eastern Standard Time, UTC-05:00) | Comments [3] | All | Cloud Computing | Software Development#
Wednesday, September 15, 2010

"Government, without popular information, or the means of acquiring it, is but a Prologue to a Farce or a Tragedy; or, perhaps both. Knowledge will forever govern ignorance."    James Madison

What is it?

Control over information is a societal danger similar to control over economic resources or political power. Representative government will not survive without the information to help us create meaningful policies. Otherwise, advocates will too easily lead us to the conclusion they want us to support.

How does one get access to this data?

Right now, it is not easy to get access to authoritative data. If you have money you search for it, purchase it, or do the research to obtain it. Often, you have to negotiate licensing and payment terms. Why can’t we shop for data the same way we find food, clothing, shelter, or leisure activities? None of these activities requires extensive searches or complex legal negotiations.

Why can’t we have a marketplace for data?

Microsoft Dallas is a marketplace for data. It provides a standard way to purchase, license, and download data. Currently it is a CTP, and no doubt will undergo a name change, but the idea will not.

The data providers could be commercial or private. Right now, they range from government agencies such as NASA or the UN to private concerns such as Info USA and NAVTEQ. You can easily find out their reputations so you know how authoritative they are.

As a CTP there is no charge, but the product offering will have either transaction/query or subscription based pricing. Microsoft has promised “easy to understand licensing”.

What are the opportunities?

There is one billing relationship in the marketplace because Microsoft will handle the payment mechanisms. Content Providers will not have to bill individual users. They will not have to write a licensing agreement for each user. Large provider organizations can deal with businesses or individuals that in other circumstances would not have provided a reasonable economic return. Small data providers can offer their data where it would have previously been economically unfeasible. Content Users would then be able to easily find data that would have been difficult to find or otherwise unavailable. The licensing terms will be very clear, avoiding another potential legal headache. Small businesses can create new business opportunities.

The marketplace itself is scalable because it runs on Microsoft Azure.

For application developers, Dallas is about your imagination. What kind of business combinations can you imagine?

How do you access the data?

Dallas will use the standard OData API. Hence Dallas data can be used from Java, PHP, or on an IPhone. The data itself can be structured or unstructured.

An example of unstructured data is the Mars rover pictures. The Associated Press uses both structured and unstructured data. The news articles are just text, but there are relationships between various story categories.

Dallas can integrate with the Azure AppFabric Access Control Service.

Your imagination is the limit.

The standard API is very simple. The only real limit is your imagining the possibilities for combining data together.

What kind of combinations can you think of?

9/15/2010 8:18:59 AM (Eastern Standard Time, UTC-05:00) | Comments [0] | All | Cloud Computing | Microsoft .NET | SOA | Software Development#
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